Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis

Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis

Book 163
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The declining supply of crude oils worldwide and the ever increasing demand for petroleum products from China, India, Europe and the US have recently propelled crude prices to unprecedented levels. The future availability of traditional crudes is becoming a source of discussion and debate.

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis offers a timely and comprehensive report on the processing of relatively inexpensive coal deposits into transportation fluids using Fisher-Tropsch process Technology. In addition to recent catalysts and process developments, the book contains the history of the Fisher-Tropsch in Germany and Japan based on captured documents by allied forces.

* Increase the understanding of FT process development
* Addresses four major areas of interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)
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Published on
Nov 6, 2006
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Science / Chemistry / General
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
Technology & Engineering / Petroleum
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Since 1987, the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has sponsored at 3 year intervals an international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology. This volume collects the recent progress of this technology as reported in the papers presented during the 232th National Meeting of the ACS in San Francisco, September 10-14, 2006.
Sixty-six years after the introduction of the fluid cracking catalyst process, it remains the main process of gasoline generation for the estimated 237 millions cars on US roads. Catalysts testing and evaluation still remains a subject of interest, debate and controversy. Lambda sweep testing, testing of SOx, NOx and combustion promoters have been discussed in details together with catalyst evaluation for atmospheric residues and metal contaminated oils cracking.
Of particular interest has been the introduction of novel concept in process design aimed at improving cracked product selectivity such as two-stage risers for better gasoline and olefins production and downer technology for high severity processes . The importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of crude oils, catalysts and reaction products are illustrated by several examples. Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
and personal overviews of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology are presented.

* Presents findings from the tri-annual international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology, sponsored by the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS)
* Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
* Personal overviews by the authors of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology
Refiners’ efforts to conform to increasingly stringent laws and a preference for fuels derived from renewable sources have mandated changes in fluid cracking catalyst technology. Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Testing, Characterization, and Environmental Regulations explores recent advances and innovations in this important component of petroleum refining technology and evaluates how the industry has been changed by environmental regulations worldwide.

Measurement, testing, and improvement

Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential to the understanding of catalyst performance and feedstock properties. The book contains a detailed review of the use of adsorption microcalorimetry to measure acidity, acid site density, and the strength of the strongest acid sites in heterogenous catalysts. It also discusses the use of 1H-NMR to characterize the properties of a FCCU feedstock. In addition, the book dedicates several chapters to pilot plant testing of catalysts and nontraditional feedstocks, maximizing and improving LCO (heating oil) production and quality, and improving FCCU operations.

Complying with the EPA

The EPA has identified the petroleum refining industry as a targeted enforcement area for the Clean Air Act (CAA) passed in 1970 and the CAA Amendments of 1990. The final chapters of the book examine the evolution of the EPA’s attempts to encourage the refining industry to enter into voluntary consent decrees to comply with the CAA and the 1990 amendments. The book describes consent decree negotiations as well as FCC emissions (SOx, NOx, CO, PM) reduction technologies through consent decree implementations.

Containing contributions from a panel of worldwide experts, the book demonstrates how the global shift toward environmentalism has engineered significant changes in the petroleum refining industry at a critical level.

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