Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis

Studies in Surface Science and Catalysis

Book 163
Elsevier
3
Free sample

The declining supply of crude oils worldwide and the ever increasing demand for petroleum products from China, India, Europe and the US have recently propelled crude prices to unprecedented levels. The future availability of traditional crudes is becoming a source of discussion and debate.

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts and Catalysis offers a timely and comprehensive report on the processing of relatively inexpensive coal deposits into transportation fluids using Fisher-Tropsch process Technology. In addition to recent catalysts and process developments, the book contains the history of the Fisher-Tropsch in Germany and Japan based on captured documents by allied forces.

* Increase the understanding of FT process development
* Addresses four major areas of interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)
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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
Nov 6, 2006
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Pages
430
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ISBN
9780080466750
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / General
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
Technology & Engineering / Petroleum
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Refiners’ efforts to conform to increasingly stringent laws and a preference for fuels derived from renewable sources have mandated changes in fluid cracking catalyst technology. Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Testing, Characterization, and Environmental Regulations explores recent advances and innovations in this important component of petroleum refining technology and evaluates how the industry has been changed by environmental regulations worldwide.

Measurement, testing, and improvement

Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential to the understanding of catalyst performance and feedstock properties. The book contains a detailed review of the use of adsorption microcalorimetry to measure acidity, acid site density, and the strength of the strongest acid sites in heterogenous catalysts. It also discusses the use of 1H-NMR to characterize the properties of a FCCU feedstock. In addition, the book dedicates several chapters to pilot plant testing of catalysts and nontraditional feedstocks, maximizing and improving LCO (heating oil) production and quality, and improving FCCU operations.

Complying with the EPA

The EPA has identified the petroleum refining industry as a targeted enforcement area for the Clean Air Act (CAA) passed in 1970 and the CAA Amendments of 1990. The final chapters of the book examine the evolution of the EPA’s attempts to encourage the refining industry to enter into voluntary consent decrees to comply with the CAA and the 1990 amendments. The book describes consent decree negotiations as well as FCC emissions (SOx, NOx, CO, PM) reduction technologies through consent decree implementations.

Containing contributions from a panel of worldwide experts, the book demonstrates how the global shift toward environmentalism has engineered significant changes in the petroleum refining industry at a critical level.

Refiners’ efforts to conform to increasingly stringent laws and a preference for fuels derived from renewable sources have mandated changes in fluid cracking catalyst technology. Advances in Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Testing, Characterization, and Environmental Regulations explores recent advances and innovations in this important component of petroleum refining technology and evaluates how the industry has been changed by environmental regulations worldwide.

Measurement, testing, and improvement

Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential to the understanding of catalyst performance and feedstock properties. The book contains a detailed review of the use of adsorption microcalorimetry to measure acidity, acid site density, and the strength of the strongest acid sites in heterogenous catalysts. It also discusses the use of 1H-NMR to characterize the properties of a FCCU feedstock. In addition, the book dedicates several chapters to pilot plant testing of catalysts and nontraditional feedstocks, maximizing and improving LCO (heating oil) production and quality, and improving FCCU operations.

Complying with the EPA

The EPA has identified the petroleum refining industry as a targeted enforcement area for the Clean Air Act (CAA) passed in 1970 and the CAA Amendments of 1990. The final chapters of the book examine the evolution of the EPA’s attempts to encourage the refining industry to enter into voluntary consent decrees to comply with the CAA and the 1990 amendments. The book describes consent decree negotiations as well as FCC emissions (SOx, NOx, CO, PM) reduction technologies through consent decree implementations.

Containing contributions from a panel of worldwide experts, the book demonstrates how the global shift toward environmentalism has engineered significant changes in the petroleum refining industry at a critical level.

Since 1987, the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS) has sponsored at 3 year intervals an international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology. This volume collects the recent progress of this technology as reported in the papers presented during the 232th National Meeting of the ACS in San Francisco, September 10-14, 2006.
Sixty-six years after the introduction of the fluid cracking catalyst process, it remains the main process of gasoline generation for the estimated 237 millions cars on US roads. Catalysts testing and evaluation still remains a subject of interest, debate and controversy. Lambda sweep testing, testing of SOx, NOx and combustion promoters have been discussed in details together with catalyst evaluation for atmospheric residues and metal contaminated oils cracking.
Of particular interest has been the introduction of novel concept in process design aimed at improving cracked product selectivity such as two-stage risers for better gasoline and olefins production and downer technology for high severity processes . The importance of solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) in the study of crude oils, catalysts and reaction products are illustrated by several examples. Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
and personal overviews of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology are presented.

* Presents findings from the tri-annual international symposium on fluid cracking catalysts (FCC) technology, sponsored by the Petroleum Division of the American Chemical Society (ACS)
* Two contributions describe the use of predictive methods to understand FCC aging and deactivation
* Personal overviews by the authors of the development of SOx and combustion promoters technology
Rising oil costs have stimulated significant interest in the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) as a method for producing a synthetic petroleum substitute. Drawn from the proceedings at a symposium held during the 236th meeting of the American Chemical Society in Philadelphia in August 2008, Advances in Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts, and Catalysis explores the recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch technology, which holds great promise in the area of renewable resources.

Expert contributors explore a range of issues

The book focuses on three main themes: catalyst preparation and activation, reaction mechanism, and process-related topics. A panel of expert contributors discusses synthesis of catalysts, carbon nanomaterials, nitric oxide calcinations, the influence of carbon, catalytic performance issues, chelating agents, and Cu and alkali promoters. They also explore Co/silica catalysts, thermodynamic control, the Two Alpha model, co-feeding experiments, internal diffusion limitations, Fe-LTFT selectivity, and the effect of co-fed water. Lastly, the book examines cross-flow filtration, kinetic studies, reduction of CO2 emissions, syncrude, and low-temperature water-gas shift.

Attaining the maximum catalytic activity and catalyst life

The themes explored in the book demonstrate that while the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) has advanced in maturity, many issues remain concerning the preparation of increasingly active catalysts and the method of activation to attain the maximum catalytic activity and catalyst life. The book includes coverage of the structural features, their changes, and the application of increasingly sophisticated characterization techniques, shedding light on the reaction mechanism and providing a glimpse into the processes and reaction rates under realistic commercial process conditions.

With petroleum prices spiraling upward, making synthetic fuels—or "synfuels"—from coal, natural gas, and biomass has become more economically competitive. Advanced energy companies now focus exclusively on alternative fuels, and many oil companies have programs dedicated to developing synthetic fuels. The Fischer-Tropsch process, which uses a collection of chemical reactions to convert mixtures of carbon monoxide and hydrogen into liquid hydrocarbons, is the studied method of choice for producing synthetic petroleum substitutes.

Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis, Catalysts, and Catalysis: Advances and Applications

began at a symposium held during the 248th American Chemical Society meeting, where high attendance demonstrated great interest in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The lively discussions that occurred led to the creation of this carefully constructed reference work. The contributors here have expanded and reorganized their presentations from the conference into thorough chapters that reflect the four key subject areas that dominated the presentations: Catalyst preparation and activation Catalyst activity and reaction mechanisms Catalyst characterization and related reactions Topics concerning commercializing the Fischer-Tropsch process

While describing advances and exploring the potential of the Fischer-Tropsch process in the future of synthetic fuels, the research also demonstrates that several issues remain in producing increasingly active catalysts and more efficient reactor design.

Covering recent developments in Fischer-Tropsch technology for renewable resources and green energy, this book is a significant contribution for researchers and practitioners concerned with the production of synthetic fuels. It explores new and sophisticated techniques while providing a look at the application of these advances to commercial processing conditions.

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