Analysis of Temperate Forest Ecosystems

Ecological Studies

Book 1
Springer Science & Business Media
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A series of concise books, each by one or several authors, will provide prompt, world-wide information on approaches to analyzing ecological systems and their interacting parts. Syntheses of results in turn will illustrate the effectiveness, and the limitations, of current knowledge. This series aims to help overcome the fragmen tation of our understanding about natural and managed landscapes and water- about man and the many other organisms which depend on these environments. We may sometimes seem complacent that our environment has supported many civilizations fairly well - better in some parts of the Earth than in others. Modern technology has mastered some difficulties but creates new ones faster than we anticipate. Pressures of human and other animal populations now highlight complex ecological problems of practical importance and theoretical scientific interest. In every climatic-biotic zone, changes in plants, soils, waters, air and other resources which support life are accelerating. Such changes engulf not only regions already crowded or exploited. They spill over into more natural areas where contrasting choices for future use should remain open to our descendents-where Nature's own balances and imbalances can be interpreted by imaginative research, and need to be.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Nov 11, 2013
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Pages
304
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ISBN
9783642855870
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
Science / Life Sciences / Ecology
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This content is DRM protected.
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This volume contains the proceedings of a Symposium held at the University of Kiel, Germany, from 31 March to 6 April, 1971. The Symposium was organized by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Marine Productivity section of the International Biological Programme (IBPIPM) with the assistance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Association of Biological Oceanography (IABO). The aim of the Symposium was to summarize present knowledge of the biology of the Indian Ocean. Twenty-two presentations by invited speakers reviewed the research work carried out during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (lIOE) 1959 -1965, the first cooperative project coordinated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). In addition, reports were presented of postexpedition examination of material and of more recent investigations relevant to the aims of the lIOE. In keeping with the aims of "Ecological Studies", the present volume contains much new information and some synthesis, all directed towards obtaining an understanding of the functioning and organization of the ecosystem of the Indian Ocean. The plan of the Symposium was to present the relevant meteorological, physical, chemical and geological background and to follow this with the various aspects of biological oceanography. Because of the uneven stage of development of the different disciplines, the papers included in this volume vary in their analytical level.
A book previously published within the framework of the Ecological Studies Series, entitled "Physical Aspects of Soil Water and Salts in Ecosystems" included awidespectrum of research papers devoted to new findings in the field of soil-plant-water relationships. "Arid Zone Irrigation" has been written specifically as a textbook for agronomists, soil scientists, agrometeorologists, water engineers and plant physiologists who want a clear presentation of irrigation fundamentals in arid and semi-arid zones. It was our intention to provide an understanding of the basic principles governing irrigation technology and to help overcome the problem of water shortage in arid zone agriculture. This book, written by a large number of specialists and covering a broad spectrum of different disciplines, is based on general up-to-date information, as well as on the results of the authors' own research. The idea of preparing such a textbook was conceived during a series of international advanced courses on irrigation held annually at the Institute of Soils and Water, Agricul tural Research Organization, Volcani Center, Bet Dagan, Israel. The final organization of the material has been influenced by discussions with colleagues from Sweden and Holland and the participants in our summer courses. Grateful acknowledgements are due to Professor CALVIN C. ROSE, CSIRO, Canberra, Australia, Professor DALE SWARTZENDRUBER, Purdue University, Lafayetta, U.S.A., and Dr. SHLOMO P. NEUMAN, Agricultural Research Organization, Bet Dagan, Israel, for their many helpful suggestions during critical reading of the manuscript. We thank also Mrs.
No other disjunct pieces of land present such striking similarities as the widely sepa 1 rated regions with a mediterranean type of climate, that is, the territories fringing the Mediterranean Sea, California, Central Chile and the southernmost strips of South Mrica and Australia. Similarities are not confined to climatic trends, but are also reflected in the physiognomy ofthe vegetation, in land use patterns and frequently in the general appearance of the landscape. The very close similarities in agricultural practices and sometimes also in rural settlements are dependent on the climatic and edaphic analogies, as well as on a certain commonality in qdtural history. This is certainly true for the Mediterranean Sea basin which in many ways represents a sort of ecological-cultural unit; this is also valid for CaUfornia and Chile, which were both settled by Spaniards and which showed periods of vigorous commercial and cultural interchanges as during the California gold rush. One other general feature is the massive interchange of cultivated and weed species of plants that has occurred between the five areas of the world that have a mediterranean-type climate, with the Mediterranean basin region itself as a major source. In spite of their limited territorial extension, probably no other parts of the world have played a more fundamental role in the history of mankind. Phoenician, Etruscan, Hellenic, Jewish, Roman, Christian andArab civilizations, among others,haveshapedmanyofman's present attitudes, including his position and perception vis-a-vis nature.
Taking readers out of the laboratory and into the humid tropical forests, this comprehensive volume explores the most recent advances occurring in tropical plant ecophysiology. Drawing on the knowledge of leading practitioners in the field, this book synthesizes a broad range of information on the ways in which tropical plants adapt to their environment and demonstrate unique physiological processes.
This book is arranged into four sections which cover resource acquisition, species interactions, ecophysiological patterns within and among tropical forest communities, and the ecophysiology of forest regeneration. These sections describe plant function in relation to ecology across a wide spectrum of tropical forest species and growth forms. How do different species harvest and utilize resources from heterogeneous tropical environments? How do patterns of functional diversity reflect the overwhelming taxonomic and morphological diversity of tropical forest plants? Such fundamental questions are examined in rich detail. To illuminate the discussions further, every chapter in this book features an agenda for future research, extensive cross referencing, timely references, and the integration of ecophysiology and the demography of tropical species where the data exist. Tropical Forest Plant Ecophysiology provides plant scientists, botanists, researchers, and graduate students with important insights into the behavior of tropical plants. Biologists and foresters interested in tropical ecology and plant physiological ecologists will also benefit from this authoritative and timely resource.
This volume contains the proceedings of a Symposium held at the University of Kiel, Germany, from 31 March to 6 April, 1971. The Symposium was organized by the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the Marine Productivity section of the International Biological Programme (IBPIPM) with the assistance of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), and the International Association of Biological Oceanography (IABO). The aim of the Symposium was to summarize present knowledge of the biology of the Indian Ocean. Twenty-two presentations by invited speakers reviewed the research work carried out during the International Indian Ocean Expedition (lIOE) 1959 -1965, the first cooperative project coordinated by the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). In addition, reports were presented of postexpedition examination of material and of more recent investigations relevant to the aims of the lIOE. In keeping with the aims of "Ecological Studies", the present volume contains much new information and some synthesis, all directed towards obtaining an understanding of the functioning and organization of the ecosystem of the Indian Ocean. The plan of the Symposium was to present the relevant meteorological, physical, chemical and geological background and to follow this with the various aspects of biological oceanography. Because of the uneven stage of development of the different disciplines, the papers included in this volume vary in their analytical level.
The Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Environmental Sciences Division initiated the Walker Branch Watershed Project on the Oak Ridge Reservation in east Tennessee in 1967, with the support of the U. S. Department of Energy's Office of Health and Environmental Research (DOE/OHER), to quantify land-water interactions in a forested landscape. It was designed to focus on three principal objectives: (1) to develop baseline data on unpolluted ecosystems, (2) to contribute to our knowledge of cycling and loss of chemical elements in natural ecosystems, and (3) to provide the understanding necessary for the construction of mathe matical simulation models for predicting the effects of man's activities on forested landscapes. In 1969, the International Biological Program's Eastern Deciduous Forest Biome Project was initiated, and Walker Branch Watershed was chosen as one of several sites for intensive research on nutrient cycling and biological productivity. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF). Over the next 4 years, intensive process-level research on primary productivity, decomposition, and belowground biological processes was coupled with ongoing DOE-supported work on the characterization of basic geology and hydrological cycles on the watershed. In 1974, the NSF's RANN Program (Research Applied to National Needs) began work on trace element cycling on Walker Branch Wa tershed because of the extensive data base being developed under both DOE and NSF support.
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