Mud Volcanoes, Geodynamics and Seismicity

Nato Science Series: IV

Book 51
Springer Science & Business Media
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1. PURPOSE OF PRESENT BOOK During the period May 19-26, 2003 the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) “Mud volcanism, Geodynamics and Seismicity” was held in Baku. Participants coming from USA, Germany, France, Italy, Portugal, Russian Federation, Ukraine, Romania, Georgia, UK, Israel, Azerbaijan, Tunisia have discussed about different geodynamic features of mud volcanism and participated to field trips oriented to a better knowledge of mud volcanic features. The Meeting focused on many features of mud volcanism occurrence and related geodynamic topics. The purpose of present book is to collect contributions discussed during the Meeting and to fill a marked editorial gap on mud volcanism. Mud volcanism was to date described by local monographies or by articles published by scientific journals. In particular no books were published on topics able to highlight the link among mud volcanism, geodynamics and seismicity. Mud volcano of Nirano (Northern Italy). Engraving from Stoppani A. (1871), Corso di Geologia, Milan, Bernardoni G. and Brigola G. Publishers. 2. WHY MUD VOLCANOES ARE GEOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT ? Mud volcanoes have attracted the attention of earth scientists for many years. Due to their importance in hydrocarbon research, a consistent progress in the knowledge of mud volcanism took place in the past twenty years. Mud extrusion is a well-known phenomenon occurring in geological environments where fluid-rich, fine grained sediments ascend within a lithologic succession due to their buoyancy.
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Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Mar 30, 2006
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Science / Earth Sciences / General
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Earth Sciences / Hydrology
Science / Earth Sciences / Mineralogy
Science / Physics / Geophysics
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Almost 50% of the total area of Austria is forested, and the forests are dominated by commercially valuable stands of Norway spruce ( (Picea abies). The few remaining forests that resemble the natural vegetation composition are located in forest reserves with restricted management. These natural forests are used as reference systems for evaluating silvicultural research on sustainable forest management. Natural forests are expected to have high biodiversity, where the structural richness of the habitat enables complex relationships between fauna, flora, and microflora. They also provide refugia for rare plants and animals found only in natural forest types. Austria had 180 of these forest reserves up to the year 2003. Most of these forests are privately owned, and owners are compensated by the government for loss of income associated with conservation status. The Ministerial Conference for the Protection of Forest Ecosystems (MCPFE) has launched a world-wide network of protected forest areas which should cover all major forest types (MCPFE and UNECE/FAO, 2003). The sites selected for our investigation of soil conditions and communities were chosen by vegetation ecologists and soil scientists. The stands have developed under natural competition conditions with no management interventions. All sites were well documented with known forest history. Our set of sites spans gradients of environmental conditions as well as species composition, providing a realistic evaluation of the interactions of biotic and abiotic factors.
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