Central America, Two Volume Set: Geology, Resources and Hazards

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An integrated treatment of the principal fields of classical and applied geosciences of Central America, this authoritative two-volume monograph treats the region as a whole, exploring geology, earth resources and geo-hazards across political boundaries. It reviews the published literature, and supplements it with an abundance of information from ongoing investigations and internal reports.The compendium is a result of four years’ collaborative work by the editors and more than ninety experts from eighteen countries. It is aimed at professionals, academics and students in the fields of geology, geography, biology, and engineering at the local, regional and international level. In a region which is rich in geological resources and where natural disasters are frequent, the monograph is a solid base for local and international institutions concerned with land-use, infrastructure, water and energy resources, and mining, as well as with hazard reduction and disaster prevention.
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About the author

Jochen Bundschuh (1960, Germany), completed his PhD on numerical modelling of heat transport in aquifers in Tübingen in 1990. His specializations are geothermics, subsurface- and surface hydrology and integrated water resources management and connected disciplines. In 2001 he was appointed within the Integrated Expert Program of CIM (GTZ/BA), Frankfurt, Germany and works within the framework of the German governmental cooperation in mission to Costa Rica at the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad (ICE), where he focuses on the sustainable use of surface and groundwater resources for power generation. He is also a professor of the Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.

Prof. Bundschuh is editor of the books "Geothermal Energy Resources for Developing Countries" (2002) and "Natural Arsenic in Groundwater" (2005) and author of over 60 international scientific publications. In 2006 he was elected Vice-president of the International Society of Groundwater for Sustainable Development (ISGSD).

Guillermo E. Alvarado (1960, Costa Rica), is a geologist working for more than 20 years in different fields of volcanology andQuaternary geology in Costa Rica and other Central American countries. In 1985 he became the chief of the Seismology and Seismic Engineering section of the Institute of Electricity of Costa Rica (ICE), now the Seismic and Volcanic Hazards and Monitoring Unit. Dr. Alvarado is also professor of Volcanology and Geoarcheology at the University of Costa Rica.

Dr. Alvarado is author of eight books including "The Volcanoes of Costa Rica" (in Spanish; 2nd edition 2000), "Costa Rica: Land of Volcanoes", (2nd edition 2005), a book on Igneous Geomorphology (1990), and a book on Natural History (1994). He is co-author of the Geological Map of Costa Rica (Tournon and Alvarado1997), and the Tectonic Atlas of Costa Rica (Denyer et al. 2003).

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Additional Information

Publisher
CRC Press
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Published on
Apr 12, 2007
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Pages
1436
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ISBN
9780203947043
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Earth Sciences / General
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Physics / Geophysics
Technology & Engineering / Civil / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Jochen Bundschuh
Geochemical modeling is an important tool in environmental studies, and in the areas of subsurface and surface hydrology, pedology, water resources management, mining geology, geothermal resources, hydrocarbon geology, and related areas dealing with the exploration and extraction of natural resources.

The book fills a gap in the literature through its discussion of geochemical modeling, which simulates the chemical and physical processes affecting the distribution of chemical species in liquid, gas, and solid phases. Geochemical modeling applies to a diversity of subsurface environments, from the vadose zone close to the Earth’s surface, down to deep-seated geothermal reservoirs.

This book provides the fundamental thermodynamic concepts of liquid-gas-solid phase systems. It introduces the principal types of geochemical models, such as speciation, reaction-path or forward, inverse- and reactive-transport models, together with examples of the most common codes and the best-practices for constructing geochemical models. The physical laws describing homogeneous and heterogeneous chemical reactions, their kinetics, and the transport of reactive solutes are presented. The partial differential or algebraic equations representing these laws, and the principal numerical methods that allow approximate solutions of these equations that can provide useful solutions to model different geochemical processes, are discussed in detail. Case studies applying geochemical models in different scientific areas and environmental settings, conclude the book.

The book is addressed to students, teachers, other professionals, and to the institutions involved in water, geothermal and hydrocarbon resources, mining, and environmental management. The book should prove useful to undergraduate and graduate students, postgraduates, professional geologists and geophysicists, engineers, environmental scientists, soil scientists, hydrochemists, and others interested in water and geochemistry.

Jochen Bundschuh
Worldwide, many regions have a great potential to cover part of their pressing water needs by renewable energy powered water treatment processes using either thermal or membrane based technologies. Not only arid and semiarid regions are increasingly suffering from water shortage but also many other regions face a limitation of freshwater resources either by increasing contamination of surface water bodies or groundwater resources unsuitable for drinking and irrigation purposes either due to their high grade of mineralization or their contents of toxic components. In many areas without centralized water supply, treatment techniques using locally available renewable energy resources such as wind, solar and geothermal can provide an economical, social and environmentally sustainable option for clean water production from seawater and from highly mineralized or otherwise unsuitable ground- and surface water.

This book provides an overview on possible cost-efficient techniques and application opportunities for different scales and shows why the implementation of these technologies faces numerous technological, economic and policy barriers and provides suggestions how they can be overcome. It serves as a synoptic compendium of the fundamentals of freshwater production using renewable energies, applicable to all types of water, ranging from brackish to marine water and also including industrial and communal residual water. The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, working in the areas of water resources, water supply,land planning, energy planning, greenhouse gases emission mitigation and rural development.
Eric N. Skousen, Ph.D.
With a background in the physical sciences, Dr. Eric Skousen has produced a stunning account of the creation of the earth from the findings of earth scientists and the teachings of the Lord’s prophets.

At last, many unanswered questions about the earth’s creation can be resolved with confidence. For example, how long did it take? Where did it take place? What about evolution, fossils, dinosaurs and cave men? Well-supported answers are here.

For those who have been challenged to explain the earth’s creation from an LDS viewpoint, this book will be helpful and enlightening. And for those who enjoy contemplating both the discoveries of science and the revelations of God, this book will be extremely stimulating and thought-provoking.

Readers have commented:

Dan from Canada: “This book has enlightened my mind and given me the wonderful opportunity to see the intermeshing between science and our religion.”

Paul from Texas: “Well-supported viewpoint and thought-provoking reading.... I appreciate Brother Skousen’s heavy usage of scriptural references and quotes from trustworthy Church leaders.”

Kristy from Utah: “Answered a lot of questions I had from my geology classes and gave me a deeper appreciation for this awesome planet we live on and the creator of it.”

Kelly from California: “This book explained so much about issues that had previously confused or bothered me.”

Jerome from Georgia: “Life altering, made me a better person....  If you really want to understand the ‘Big Picture’ then this book is a must read.”

Dave from Washington: “One unexpected blessing received from reading this book was an enhanced Temple worship experience.”

Ed from Iowa: “If you are LDS, this will open your eyes to things that are incredible and you will not look at the world we live in in the same way again.”

Devon: “Scholarly material well presented for the layman.”

This eBook includes the original index, illustrations, footnotes, table of contents and page numbering from the printed format.

Jochen Bundschuh
Availability of and adequate accessibility to freshwater and energy are two key technological and scientific problems of global significance. At the end of the 20th century, the deficit of water for human consumption and economic application forced us to focus on rational use of resources. Increasing the use of renewable energy sources and improving energy efficiency is a challenge for the 21st century. Geothermal energy is heat energy generated and stored in the Earth, accumulated in hydrothermal systems or in dry rocks within the Earth’s crust, in amounts which constitute the energy resources. The sustainable management of geothermal energy resources should be geared towards optimization of energy recovery, but also towards rational management of water resources since geothermal water serves both as energy carrier and also as valuable raw material. Geothermal waters, depending on their hydrogeothermal characteristics, the lithology of the rocks involved, the depth at which the resources occur and the sources of water supply, may be characterized by very diverse physicochemical parameters. This factor largely determines the technology to be used in their exploitation and the way the geothermal water can be used. This book is focused on the effective use of geothermal water and renewable energy for future needs in order to promote modern, sustainable and effective management of water resources.

The research field includes crucial new areas of study:

• an improvement in the management of freshwater resources through the use of residual geothermal water;

• a review of the technologies available in the field of geothermal water treatment for its (re)use for energetic purposes and freshwater production, and

• the development of balneotherapy.

The book is aimed at professionals, academics and decision makers worldwide, water sector representatives and administrators, business enterprises specializing in renewable energy management and water treatment, working in the areas of geothermal energy usage, water resources, water supply and energy planning. This book has the potential to become a standard text used by educational institutions and research & development establishments involved in the geothermal water management.

Marta I. Litter
The Congress "Arsenic in the Environment" offers an international, multi- and interdisciplinary discussion platform for research aimed towards a holistic solution to the problem posed by the environmental toxin arsenic, with considerable societal impact. The congress has focused on cutting edge and breakthrough research in physical, chemical, toxicological, medical, agricultural and other specific issues on arsenic across a broader environmental realm. The Congress “Arsenic in the Environment” was first organized in Mexico City (As2006) followed by As2008 in Valencia, Spain, As2010 in Tainan, Taiwan and As2012 in Cairns, Australia. The 5th International Congress As2014 was held May 11-16, 2014 in Buenos Aires, Argentina and entitled One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014).

The session topics comprised:
Theme 1: Arsenic in environmental matrices (air, water and soil)
Theme 2: Arsenic in food
Theme 3: Arsenic and health
Theme 4: Removal technologies
Theme 5: Mitigation management and policy

Hosting this Congress in Argentina was especially relevant because 2014, marks 100 years since the discovery of the disease Hidroarsenicismo Crónico Regional Endémico (HACRE) or arsenicosis by Dr. Goyenechea and Dr. Ayerza in the city of Bell Ville, Province of Córdoba, Argentina. Dr. Ayerza was the first person to relate skin disorders to the consumption of groundwater with high concentrations of arsenic. It is estimated that more than 14 million people in Latin America are at risk, of whom nearly 4 million are exposed to drinking water with high arsenic concentration in Argentina, and further in Chile, El Salvador, Mexico, Nicaragua and Peru. A vast area of the Chaco-Pampean Plain in Argentina, mostly in the semi-arid regions, is affected not only by arsenic exposure from drinking water but also through other exposure pathways, e.g. through food and other dietary intake. The Congress has gathered professionals involved in different segments of interdisciplinary research in an open forum, and strengthens relations between academia, industry, research laboratories, government agencies and the private sector to share an optimal atmosphere for exchange of knowledge, discoveries and discussions about the problem of arsenic in the environment.

Alper Baba
In the region comprising Turkey and Greece, people have been using water from geothermal sources for bathing and washing of clothes since ancient times. This region falls within the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt and hence is a locus of active volcanism and tectonism and experiences frequent seismic events. This volcanic and tectonic activity has given rise to over 1500 geothermal springs. Its importance was recognized decades ago and the geothermal water is now being utilized for district heating, industrial processing, domestic water supply, balneology and electric power generation. The geothermal potential in this region is large. In Turkey alone it is estimated to be more than 31500 MWt while the proven potential is 4078 MWt. At present 2084 MWt is being utilized for direct applications in Turkey and 135 MWt in Greece. In Turkey electricity is produced for 166 MW installed capacity, whereas in Greece geothermal energy is presently not used for electricity production despite its potential.

This book discusses the geochemical evolution of the thermal waters and thermal gases in terms of the current volcano-tectonic setting and associated geological framework that makes the region very important to the geothermal scientific community. The book explains, in a didactic way, the possible applications, depending on local conditions and scales, and it presents new and stimulating ideas for future developments of this renewable energy source. Additionally, the book discusses the role(s) of possible physicochemical processes in deep hydrothermal systems, the volatile provenance and relative contributions of mantle and crustal components to total volatile inventories. It provides the reader with a thorough understanding of the geothermal systems of this region and identifi es the most suitable solutions for specifi c tasks and needs elsewhere in the world. It is the fi rst time that abundant information and data from this region, obtained from intensive research during the last few decades, is unveiled to the international geothermal community. Thus, an international readership, in the professional and academic sectors, as well as in key institutions that deal with geothermal energy, will benefit from the knowledge from geothermal research and experiences obtained from the Aegean Region.

Book 2
Rafid Al-Khoury

A comprehensive mathematical and computational modeling of CO2 Geosequestration and Compressed Air Energy Storage

Energy and environment are two interrelated issues of great concern to modern civilization. As the world population will soon reach eight billion, the demand for energy will dramatically increase, intensifying the use of fossil fuels. Utilization of fossil fuels is by far the largest anthropogenic source of CO2 emission into the earth’s atmosphere. This unavoidable reality necessitates efforts to mitigate CO2 from indefi nitely being emitted in the atmosphere. CO2 geo-sequestration is currently considered to be a vital technology for this purpose. Meanwhile, and as fossil fuels will sooner or later be depleted, utilization of renewable energy resources is inevitable. Nowadays, wind and solar energy, being clean and sustainable, are gaining momentum. However, their availability is intermittent. This intermittent nature of solar and wind energy necessitates storing the produced energy at off-peak times for later use. Compressed air energy storage in subterranean caverns, aquifers and coal seams is currently considered to be a plausible technology for this purpose. CO2 geo-sequestration and compressed air energy storage are thus vital technologies for current and future energy strategy development. These technologies can be made safe and cost-effective by utilizing computational tools capable of simulating the involved multiphysical phenomena and processes. Computational modeling of such systems is challenging and resource-consuming. Meeting such a challenge constitutes the focal point of this book.

This book addresses comprehensive theoretical and computational modeling aspects of CO2 geosequestration and compressed air energy storage. The book consists of 16 chapters authored by prominent researchers in these two fi elds. The authors of the book endeavoured to present years of innovative work, making it available for a wide range of readers, including geoscientists, poromechanists, applied mathematicians, computational geoscientists, geologists and reservoir engineers.

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