Handbook for Cleaning for Semiconductor Manufacturing

Wiley-Scrivener

Book 67
Sold by John Wiley & Sons
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This comprehensive volume provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamentals of cleaning and surface conditioning of semiconductor applications such as high-k/metal gate cleaning, copper/low-k cleaning, high dose implant stripping, and silicon and SiGe passivation. The theory and fundamental physics associated with wet etching and wet cleaning is reviewed, plus the surface and colloidal aspects of wet processing. Formulation development practices and methodology are presented along with the applications for preventing copper corrosion, cleaning aluminum lines, and other sensitive layers. This is a must-have reference for any engineer or manager associated with using or supplying cleaning and contamination free technologies for semiconductor manufacturing.

From the Reviews...

"This handbook will be a valuable resource for many academic libraries. Many engineering librarians who work with a variety of programs (including, but not limited to Materials Engineering) should include this work in their collection. My recommendation is to add this work to any collection that serves a campus with a materials/manufacturing/electrical/computer engineering programs and campuses with departments of physics and/or chemistry with large graduate-level enrollment."
Randy Wallace, Department Head, Discovery Park Library, University of North Texas

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About the author

Karen A. Reinhardt is Principle Consultant at Cameo Consulting in San Jose, California. Currently, Karen works with start-up cleaning companies to develop their technology for acquisition. Prior to forming a consulting company, Karen was employed at Novellus Systems, AMD, and Cypress Semiconductor. She has published more than 30 technical publications, has been awarded seven patents, and is co-editor of Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology.

Richard F. Reidy (Ph.D., Penn State) is interim Chair and associate professor of Material Science and Engineering at the University of North Texas. He has conducted research in interconnect processing and characterization with over 60 technical publications and three patents. He is a member of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors.

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Additional Information

Publisher
John Wiley & Sons
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Published on
Apr 12, 2011
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Pages
590
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ISBN
9781118099513
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Language
English
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Genres
Technology & Engineering / Electrical
Technology & Engineering / Electronics / Semiconductors
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This book provides a clear and understandable text for users and developers of advanced engineered materials, particularly in the area of thin films, and addresses fundamentals of modifying the optical, electrical, photo-electric, triboligical, and corrosion resistance of solid surfaces and adding functionality to solids by engineering their surface, structure, and electronic, magnetic and optical structure. Thin film applications are emphasized. Through the inclusion of multiple clear examples of the technologies, how to use them,and the synthesis processes involved, the reader will gain a deep understanding of the purpose, goals, and methodology of surface engineering and engineered materials.

Virtually every advance in thin film, energy, medical, tribological materials technologies has resulted from surface engineering and engineered materials. Surface engineering involves structures and compositions not found naturally in solids and is used to modify the surface properties of solids and involves application of thin film coatings, surface functionalization and activation, and plasma treatment. Engineered materials are the future of thin film technology. Engineered structures such as superlattices, nanolaminates, nanotubes, nanocomposites, smart materials, photonic bandgap materials, metamaterials, molecularly doped polymers and structured materials all have the capacity to expand and increase the functionality of thin films and coatings used in a variety of applications and provide new applications. New advanced deposition processes and hybrid processes are being used and developed to deposit advanced thin film materials and structures not possible with conventional techniques a decade ago. Properties can now be engineered into thin films that achieve performance not possible a decade ago.

This Third Edition updates a landmark text with the latest findings

The Third Edition of the internationally lauded Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization brings the text fully up-to-date with the latest developments in the field and includes new pedagogical tools to assist readers. Not only does the Third Edition set forth all the latest measurement techniques, but it also examines new interpretations and new applications of existing techniques.

Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization remains the sole text dedicated to characterization techniques for measuring semiconductor materials and devices. Coverage includes the full range of electrical and optical characterization methods, including the more specialized chemical and physical techniques. Readers familiar with the previous two editions will discover a thoroughly revised and updated Third Edition, including:

Updated and revised figures and examples reflecting the most current data and information 260 new references offering access to the latest research and discussions in specialized topics New problems and review questions at the end of each chapter to test readers' understanding of the material

In addition, readers will find fully updated and revised sections in each chapter.

Plus, two new chapters have been added:

Charge-Based and Probe Characterization introduces charge-based measurement and Kelvin probes. This chapter also examines probe-based measurements, including scanning capacitance, scanning Kelvin force, scanning spreading resistance, and ballistic electron emission microscopy. Reliability and Failure Analysis examines failure times and distribution functions, and discusses electromigration, hot carriers, gate oxide integrity, negative bias temperature instability, stress-induced leakage current, and electrostatic discharge.

Written by an internationally recognized authority in the field, Semiconductor Material and Device Characterization remains essential reading for graduate students as well as for professionals working in the field of semiconductor devices and materials.

An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

 Rad-hard Semiconductor Memories is intended for researchers and professionals interested in understanding how to design and make a preliminary evaluation of rad-hard semiconductor memories, making leverage on standard CMOS manufacturing processes available from different silicon foundries and using different technology nodes. 


In the first part of the book, a preliminary overview of the effects of radiation in space, with a specific focus on memories, will be conducted to enable the reader to understand why specific design solutions are adopted to mitigate hard and soft errors. The second part will be devoted to RHBD (Radiation Hardening by Design) techniques for semiconductor components with a specific focus on memories. The approach will follow a top-down scheme starting from RHBD at architectural level (how to build a rad-hard floor-plan), at circuit level (how to mitigate radiation effects by handling transistors in the proper way) and at layout level (how to shape a layout to mitigate radiation effects). 

After the description of the mitigation techniques, the book enters in the core of the topic covering SRAMs (synchronous, asynchronous, single port and dual port) and PROMs (based on AntiFuse OTP technologies), describing how to design a rad-hard flash memory and fostering RHBD toward emerging memories like ReRAM. The last part will be a leap into emerging memories at a very early stage, not yet ready for industrial use in silicon but candidates to become an option for the next wave of rad-hard components. 

Technical topics discussed in the book include: 

Radiation effects on semiconductor components (TID, SEE)Radiation Hardening by Design (RHBD) TechniquesRad-hard SRAMsRad-hard PROMsRad-hard Flash NVMsRad-hard ReRAMsRad-hard emerging technologies
Key advances in Semiconductor Terahertz (THz) Technology now promises important new applications enabling scientists and engineers to overcome the challenges of accessing the so-called "terahertz gap". This pioneering reference explains the fundamental methods and surveys innovative techniques in the generation, detection and processing of THz waves with solid-state devices, as well as illustrating their potential applications in security and telecommunications, among other fields.

With contributions from leading experts, Semiconductor Terahertz Technology: Devices and Systems at Room Temperature Operation comprehensively and systematically covers semiconductor-based room temperature operating sources such as photomixers, THz antennas, radiation concepts and THz propagation as well as room-temperature operating THz detectors.

The second part of the book focuses on applications such as the latest photonic and electronic THz systems as well as emerging THz technologies including: whispering gallery resonators, liquid crystals, metamaterials and graphene-based devices.

This book will provide support for practicing researchers and professionals and will be an indispensable reference to graduate students in the field of THz technology.

Key features:

Includes crucial theoretical background sections to photomixers, photoconductive switches and electronic THz generation & detection. Provides an extensive overview of semiconductor-based THz sources and applications. Discusses vital technologies for affordable THz applications. Supports teaching and studying increasingly popular courses on semiconductor THz technology.
A Unified Summary of the Models and Optimization Methods Used in Computational Lithography

Optical lithography is one of the most challenging areas of current integrated circuit manufacturing technology. The semiconductor industry is relying more on resolution enhancement techniques (RETs), since their implementation does not require significant changes in fabrication infrastructure. Computational Lithography is the first book to address the computational optimization of RETs in optical lithography, providing an in-depth discussion of optimal optical proximity correction (OPC), phase shifting mask (PSM), and off-axis illumination (OAI) RET tools that use model-based mathematical optimization approaches.

The book starts with an introduction to optical lithography systems, electric magnetic field principles, and the fundamentals of optimization from a mathematical point of view. It goes on to describe in detail different types of optimization algorithms to implement RETs. Most of the algorithms developed are based on the application of the OPC, PSM, and OAI approaches and their combinations. Algorithms for coherent illumination as well as partially coherent illumination systems are described, and numerous simulations are offered to illustrate the effectiveness of the algorithms. In addition, mathematical derivations of all optimization frameworks are presented.

The accompanying MATLAB® software files for all the RET methods described in the book make it easy for readers to run and investigate the codes in order to understand and apply the optimization algorithms, as well as to design a set of optimal lithography masks. The codes may also be used by readers for their research and development activities in their academic or industrial organizations. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide is also included. An accompanying MATLAB® software guide is included, and readers can download the software to use with the guide at ftp://ftp.wiley.com/public/sci_tech_med/computational_lithography.

Tailored for both entry-level and experienced readers, Computational Lithography is meant for faculty, graduate students, and researchers, as well as scientists and engineers in industrial organizations whose research or career field is semiconductor IC fabrication, optical lithography, and RETs. Computational lithography draws from the rich theory of inverse problems, optics, optimization, and computational imaging; as such, the book is also directed to researchers and practitioners in these fields.

Interest in latchup is being renewed with the evolution of complimentary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) scaling, and high-level system-on-chip (SOC) integration.

Clear methodologies that grant protection from latchup, with insight into the physics, technology and circuit issues involved, are in increasing demand.

This book describes CMOS and BiCMOS semiconductor technology and their sensitivity to present day latchup phenomena, from basic over-voltage and over-current conditions, single event latchup (SEL) and cable discharge events (CDE), to latchup domino phenomena. It contains chapters focusing on bipolar physics, latchup theory, latchup and guard ring characterization structures, characterization testing, product level test systems, product level testing and experimental results. Discussions on state-of-the-art semiconductor processes, design layout, and circuit level and system level latchup solutions are also included, as well as:

latchup semiconductor process solutions for both CMOS to BiCMOS, such as shallow trench, deep trench, retrograde wells, connecting implants, sub-collectors, heavily-doped buried layers, and buried grids – from single- to triple-well CMOS; practical latchup design methods, automated and bench-level latchup testing methods and techniques, latchup theory of logarithm resistance space, generalized alpha (a) space, beta (b) space, new latchup design methods– connecting the theoretical to the practical analysis, and; examples of latchup computer aided design (CAD) methodologies, from design rule checking (DRC) and logical-to-physical design, to new latchup CAD methodologies that address latchup for internal and external latchup on a local as well as global design level.

Latchup acts as a companion text to the author’s series of books on ESD (electrostatic discharge) protection, serving as an invaluable reference for the professional semiconductor chip and system-level ESD engineer. Semiconductor device, process and circuit designers, and quality, reliability and failure analysis engineers will find it informative on the issues that confront modern CMOS technology. Practitioners in the automotive and aerospace industries will also find it useful. In addition, its academic treatment will appeal to both senior and graduate students with interests in semiconductor process, device physics, computer aided design and design integration.

Want to know how to use an electronic component? This first book of a three-volume set includes key information on electronics parts for your projects—complete with photographs, schematics, and diagrams. You’ll learn what each one does, how it works, why it’s useful, and what variants exist. No matter how much you know about electronics, you’ll find fascinating details you’ve never come across before.

Convenient, concise, well-organized, and precise

Perfect for teachers, hobbyists, engineers, and students of all ages, this reference puts reliable, fact-checked information right at your fingertips—whether you’re refreshing your memory or exploring a component for the first time. Beginners will quickly grasp important concepts, and more experienced users will find the specific details their projects require.

Unique: the first and only encyclopedia set on electronic components, distilled into three separate volumes Incredibly detailed: includes information distilled from hundreds of sources Easy to browse: parts are clearly organized by component type Authoritative: fact-checked by expert advisors to ensure that the information is both current and accurate Reliable: a more consistent source of information than online sources, product datasheets, and manufacturer’s tutorials Instructive: each component description provides details about substitutions, common problems, and workarounds Comprehensive: Volume 1 covers power, electromagnetism, and discrete semi-conductors; Volume 2 includes integrated circuits, and light and sound sources; Volume 3 covers a range of sensing devices.
Want to know how to use an electronic component? This second book of a three-volume set includes key information on electronics parts for your projects--complete with photographs, schematics, and diagrams. You'll learn what each one does, how it works, why it's useful, and what variants exist. No matter how much you know about electronics, you'll find fascinating details you've never come across before.

Perfect for teachers, hobbyists, engineers, and students of all ages, this reference puts reliable, fact-checked information right at your fingertips--whether you're refreshing your memory or exploring a component for the first time. Beginners will quickly grasp important concepts, and more experienced users will find the specific details their projects require.

Volume 2 covers signal processing, including LEDs, LCDs, audio, thyristors, digital logic, and amplification.

Unique: the first and only encyclopedia set on electronic components, distilled into three separate volumesIncredibly detailed: includes information distilled from hundreds of sourcesEasy to browse: parts are clearly organized by component typeAuthoritative: fact-checked by expert advisors to ensure that the information is both current and accurateReliable: a more consistent source of information than online sources, product datasheets, and manufacturer's tutorialsInstructive: each component description provides details about substitutions, common problems, and workaroundsComprehensive: Volume 1 covers power, electromagnetism, and discrete semiconductors; Volume 2 includes LEDs, LCDs, audio, thyristors, digital logic, and amplification; Volume 3 covers a range of sensing devices.
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