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Perchlorateâ€"a powerful oxidant used in solid rocket fuels by the military and aerospace industryâ€"has been detected in public drinking water supplies of over 11 million people at concentrations of at least 4 parts per billion (ppb). High doses of perchlorate can decrease thyroid hormone production by inhibiting the uptake of iodide by the thyroid. Thyroid hormones are critical for normal growth and development of the central nervous system of fetuses and infants. This report evaluates the potential health effects of perchlorate and the scientific underpinnings of the 2002 draft risk assessment issued by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).

The report finds that the body can compensate for iodide deficiency, and that iodide uptake would likely have to be reduced by at least 75% for months or longer for adverse health effects, such as hypothryroidism, to occur. The report recommends using clinical studies of iodide uptake in humans as the basis for determining a reference dose rather than using studies of adverse health effects in rats that serve as EPA’s basis. The report suggests that daily ingestion of 0.0007 milligrams of perchlorate per kilograms of body weightâ€"an amount more than 20 times the reference dose proposed by EPAâ€"should not threaten the health of even the most sensitive populations.

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Publisher
National Academies Press
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Published on
Apr 18, 2005
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Pages
276
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ISBN
9780309181358
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / Environmental Conservation & Protection
Political Science / Security (National & International)
Science / Environmental Science
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This content is DRM free.
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"A valuable primer on foreign policy: a primer that concerned citizens of all political persuasions—not to mention the president and his advisers—could benefit from reading." —The New York Times

An examination of a world increasingly defined by disorder and a United States unable to shape the world in its image, from the president of the Council on Foreign Relations

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In A World in Disarray, Haass argues for an updated global operating system—call it world order 2.0—that reflects the reality that power is widely distributed and that borders count for less. One critical element of this adjustment will be adopting a new approach to sovereignty, one that embraces its obligations and responsibilities as well as its rights and protections. Haass also details how the U.S. should act towards China and Russia, as well as in Asia, Europe, and the Middle East. He suggests, too, what the country should do to address its dysfunctional politics, mounting debt, and the lack of agreement on the nature of its relationship with the world.

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