Riverbank Filtration: Understanding Contaminant Biogeochemistry and Pathogen Removal

Nato Science Series: IV

Book 14
Springer Science & Business Media
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Riverbank filtration is widely used in Europe and to some extent in the United States for the public water supply. It is a cost-effective and realisable treatment technology in which horizontal and vertical wells pump a mixture of ground water and induced surface water from a river. This book describes the biogeochemical issues involved in contaminant removal from surface water and the mechanisms of pathogen removal. Specifically, the following three points are considered:
*The role of hydrogeological and well construction factors in the development of redox zones at bank filtration sites and the resulting impacts on contaminant removal.
*The mechanisms of pathogen removal, including the processes, colloid filtration, die-away, decay, and predation.
*The status of riverbank filtration processes in NATO partner countries.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
253
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ISBN
9789401004794
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / Environmental Conservation & Protection
Science / Earth Sciences / General
Science / Earth Sciences / Geology
Science / Earth Sciences / Hydrology
Science / Environmental Science
Science / Life Sciences / Ecology
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / General
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / Water Supply
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This content is DRM protected.
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2 DANNY D. REIBLEI AND KATERINA DEMNEROVA 1 Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 2 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic On May 24, 2001, a total of 102 students and lecturers participated in an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under our direction. The Institute was focused on in situ and onsite management of contaminated sites. The objective of the Institute was to balance state of the art science with techniques for field application of a variety of technologies for in situ assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Many of the lecturers were drawn from the ranks of the Hazardous Substance Research Centers, multi-university consortia that have been funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to conduct research and technology transfer designed to promote risk-based management and control of hazardous substances for the nation. The Centers have made special contributions to the areas of in situ and onsite assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Such approaches have the potential for being significantly less expensive than other assessment and remediation approaches while maintaining accuracy and effectiveness. Cost-effective remedial and management approaches that are also effective in minimizing exposure and risk to human health and the environment are a critical need throughout the world but particularly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union where resources that can be devoted to environmental cleanup are especially limited.
Since the "pioneering" time of the mid-1980s, the rate of adoption of in situ bioremediation strategies has been stagnating. To paraphrase Mark Twain, however, news of the demise of bioremediation may have been exaggerated; there is still a widespread belief that bioremediation remains a viable and promising technology.

Among the many topics addressed in this book, three are of particular significance. The first concerns the development of suitable toxicological tests to be used in conjunction with bioremediation strategies. Traditional reliance on chemical analysis to understand the direction and extent of treatment in a bioremediation process has been found to be inadequate. Whereas the goal of bioremediation is toxicity reduction, few direct, reliable measures of this process are as yet available. Another area of intense discussion is the assessment of market forces contributing to the acceptability of bioremediation. Finally, another important component is a series of lectures and lively exchanges devoted to practical applications of different bioremediation technologies. The range of subjects covers a wide spectrum, encompassing emerging technologies as well as actual, full-scale operations. Examples discussed include landfarming, biopiling, composting, phytoremediation and mycoremediation. Each technology is explored for its utility and capability to provide desired treatment goals.

Advantages and limitations of each technology are discussed. The concept of natural attenuation is also critically evaluated since in some cases where time to remediation is not a significant factor, it may be an alternative to active bioremediation operations.

Interest in arsenic in ground water has greatly increased in the past decade because of the increased awareness of human health effects and the costs of avoidance or treatment of ground water supplies used for consumption. The goal of this book is to provide a description of the basic processes that affect arsenic occurrence and transport by providing sufficient background information on arsenic geochemistry and descriptions of hi- arsenic ground water, both affected and unaffected by human activity. An understanding of thermodynamics, adsorption, and the speciation of arsenic in solid phases, which are described in first three chapters, is needed to predict the fate of arsenic in ground water systems. Large-scale and deep movement of ground water can and has redistributed arsenic in the near surface environment, as described in the next two chapters. These large-scale systems can affect large volumes of both ground water and surface water, such as in the Yellowstone system, and can produce mineralised zones that subsequently release arsenic to ground water supplies. Regional identification of high-arsenic ground water and its consumption as described in the next three chapters clearly demonstrates a need for increased wat- quality monitoring, particularly in south and southeast Asia. Chapters 9-11 provide examples of high arsenic ground water associated with sulfide mineral oxidation and alkaline conditions. Finally, smaller scale studies of the effects of human activities that have produced high-arsenic ground water and methods for attenuation of ground water are presented.
2 DANNY D. REIBLEI AND KATERINA DEMNEROVA 1 Hazardous Substance Research Center/South and Southwest, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803 2 Department of Biochemistry and Microbiology, Institute of Chemical Technology, Prague, Czech Republic On May 24, 2001, a total of 102 students and lecturers participated in an Advanced Study Institute (ASI) sponsored by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) under our direction. The Institute was focused on in situ and onsite management of contaminated sites. The objective of the Institute was to balance state of the art science with techniques for field application of a variety of technologies for in situ assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Many of the lecturers were drawn from the ranks of the Hazardous Substance Research Centers, multi-university consortia that have been funded by the US Environmental Protection Agency to conduct research and technology transfer designed to promote risk-based management and control of hazardous substances for the nation. The Centers have made special contributions to the areas of in situ and onsite assessment and remediation of contaminated sites. Such approaches have the potential for being significantly less expensive than other assessment and remediation approaches while maintaining accuracy and effectiveness. Cost-effective remedial and management approaches that are also effective in minimizing exposure and risk to human health and the environment are a critical need throughout the world but particularly in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union where resources that can be devoted to environmental cleanup are especially limited.
Chittaranjan Ray, Ph. D. , P. E. University of Hawaii at Mãnoa Honolulu, Hawaii, United States Jürgen Schubert, M. Sc. Stadtwerke Düsseldorf AG Düsseldorf, Germany Ronald B. Linsky National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States Gina Melin National Water Research Institute Fountain Valley, California, United States 1. What is Riverbank Filtration? The purpose ofthis book is to show that riverbank filtration (RBF) isa low-cost and efficient alternative water treatment for drinking-water applications. There are two immediate benefits to the increased use of RBF: Minimized need for adding chemicals like disinfectants and coagulants to surface water to control pathogens. Decreased costs to the community without increased risk to human health. Butwhat,exactly, isRBF? In humid regions, river water naturally percolates through the ground into aquifers (which are layers of sand and gravel that contain water underground) during high-flow conditions. In arid regions, most rivers lose flow, and the percolating water passes through soil and aquifer material until it reaches the water table. During these percolation processes, potential contaminants present in river water are filtered and attenuated. If there are no other contaminants present in the aquifer or ifthe respective contaminants are present at lower concentrations, the quality of water in the aquifer can be ofhigher quality than that found in theriver. In RBF, production wells — which are placed near the banks ofrivers —pump large quantities ofwater.
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