In her groundbreaking reporting over the past few years, Naomi Klein introduced the term "disaster capitalism." Whether covering Baghdad after the U.S. occupation, Sri Lanka in the wake of the tsunami, or New Orleans post-Katrina, she witnessed something remarkably similar. People still reeling from catastrophe were being hit again, this time with economic "shock treatment," losing their land and homes to rapid-fire corporate makeovers.
The Shock Doctrine retells the story of the most dominant ideology of our time, Milton Friedman's free market economic revolution. In contrast to the popular myth of this movement's peaceful global victory, Klein shows how it has exploited moments of shock and extreme violence in order to implement its economic policies in so many parts of the world from Latin America and Eastern Europe to South Africa, Russia, and Iraq.
At the core of disaster capitalism is the use of cataclysmic events to advance radical privatization combined with the privatization of the disaster response itself. Klein argues that by capitalizing on crises, created by nature or war, the disaster capitalism complex now exists as a booming new economy, and is the violent culmination of a radical economic project that has been incubating for fifty years.
The Global Entrepreneurship and Development Index is a construction of individual and institutional measures that integrates 31 variables from various data sources into 15 pillars, three sub-indexes and a 'super index'. The relationship between entrepreneurship and economic development appears to be more or less mildly S-shaped. The findings suggest moving away from simple measures of entrepreneurship across countries illustrating a U-shaped or L-shaped relationship to more complex measures, which are positively related to development. The model has important implications for development policy.
This unique book will be invaluable for researchers, policymakers and entrepreneurs keen to expand their understanding of entrepreneurship and development.
Distinct from both output-based entrepreneurship indexes (i.e., new firm counts) and process-based indexes (i.e., comparisons of policies and regulations, the GEDI is designed to profile national systems of entrepreneurship. The Index does not simply count new firm registrations nor is it an exercise of policy benchmarking. It also does not focus exclusively on high-growth entrepreneurship; it considers the characteristics of entrepreneurship that enhance productivity, such as innovation, market expansion, globalization, and growth potential. Finally, recognizing that entrepreneurship has a different impact in different economic and institutional contexts, the GEDI combines individual-level data with data that describes national institutions, as well as economic and demographic structures, to provide an institutionally embedded view of the drivers of productive entrepreneurship.
Whereas developed countries will be challenged to increase their economic productivity to sustain current standards of living as their populations rapidly age, developing economies will need to integrate more than two billion young adults into the world economy by 2050. How can more than one billion jobs be created in the developing world within this timeframe, especially in the least developed countries, where poverty and massive unemployment are already dominant facts of economic life? How can we measure, monitor, and build the ecosystems to produce such growth? The GEDI is designed to profile national systems of entrepreneurship. It links institutions and agents through a National Entrepreneurial System (ecosystem) in which each biotic and abiotic component is reinforced by the other at the country level. The resulting data gives policymakers a tool for understanding the entrepreneurial strengths and weaknesses of their countries’ economies, thereby enabling them to implement policies that foster productive entrepreneurship. The GEDI also helps governments harness the power of entrepreneurship to add these types of challenges.